Slag coating – It is basically a technique of rocking the converter for creating a working lining of slag. The lining of every single reactor, transport vessel or kiln uses a wide range of refractory products including bricks, monolithics and high-temperature insulation wool. The charge pad is subjected to impact load by falling scrap, sometimes of heavy nature such as bloom ends. chemical and heat resistant properties in other processing units. The repair of the damaged portion of the safety lining is carried out and the working lining is installed without mortar. By using laser beam, the areas actually requiring gunning maintenance can be identified for carrying out the required gunning maintenance. Pitch bonded and impregnated refractories have been found to give superior performance in the tapping area due to the reduction of penetrating slag oxides by the action of C in the refractory block porosity. I am agree with TS1979, every refractory lining especially for monolithic castable lining has to cured for 24 hours minimum before dry-out process. Refractory materials with resistance to high temperature slag attack along with oxidation resistance are required for the lining of this area. The removed refractories are allowed to fall by rotating the converter to an inverted position. In the technique, a laser beam is rebounded off calibrated points on the converter proper and compared to the points in the worn lining. This type of lining is also called zonal lining since in such type of lining the refractories are zoned such that a given segment of lining having lesser wear is assigned a lower quality or lesser thickness of refractory. 4Heat the installed refractory lining with a heater or a floodlight when the air temperature falls below 0°C during curing in the winter season or in cold latitudes since freezing in the castables deteriorates the strength of the refractory lining 5In case that the surface of … Mag-C lining does not provide an enhanced performance in the area of converter bottom. Drying refractory is critical for strong, long-lasting refractory applications. These are given below. It is an art which requires a considerable attention during converter operation. These materials offer good resistance to impact, provide resilience coupled with strength, and resistance to slag ingress owing to the presence of graphite. Whenever linings are heated up from ambient temperatures, whether it be the initial heatup after a new lining installation or a … A lot of studies have been made on the gunning materials and their quality is being improved continuously. The chemistry did not change. One of a number of ceramic materials for use in high-temperature structures or equipment. Gunning materials are normally water based. This means that all the zones (Fig 2) of the converter lining is to worn out to the stopping thickness at the same time. Steel furnaces require re-lining at intervals, but this is an expensive process, as the furnace has to be pulled out of commission, and allowed to cool before the refractory lining can be replaced. Refractory linings are generally designed to provide specific protection of various operating systems or environmental conditions. In addition, sampling probes and temperature probes are introduced from this side of the tilted vessel and this leads to slag at high temperature carrying out the washing of the charge pad area. Generally the amount of graphite used can vary from 5 % to 25 % and when everything else being equal then with the higher graphite content the higher is the slag resistance and thermal conductivity of the brick. Slag splashing – Slag splashing technique contributes to major enhancement in the converter lining life. Wear of the refractory material is primarily by loss of the working face by oxidation of the C bond. The powders improve hot strength markedly by forming complex metallic- carbide- oxide bonds in the brick. A kind of granular and powdered material made of adding a certain amount of binder by the refractory material. The basic slags formed also attempt to dissolve upto their saturation level of magnesia (MgO) from the brick. It consists of gunning refractory material normally a monolithic on the areas which encounter severe wear out such as trunnions, and the slag line. Refractory materialswill fill their lifespaneven if they are not subject to an accident. While refractory must be able to stand up to thermal stress, it also must be able to undergo physical wear and corrosion that comes from chemicals in the boiler. Damage to refractory bricks in the upper cone occurs during mechanical deskulling either progressively by loss of brick ends or by dislodgement of whole bricks. Slag splashing needs 2 minutes to 3 minutes and is done with converter in vertical condition. This information is also useful in comparing the wear rates for different refractories and avoiding of the shell damage. After the end of their lifespan, they won’t be able to fulfill their purpose. A large part of the safety lining normally lasts a number of the working lining campaigns. It is also used for its. The knuckle area is mostly subjected to severe slag attack, particularly when the converter is not being blown. refractory lining. N2 flow is controlled based on the lance height and is usually automated. Crystal size is normally considered to be large when it is higher than 140 microns.