In assessing consequences, the only thing that matters is the amount of happiness or unhappiness that is created. “Elements of Moral Philosophy" makes use of the debate about homosexuality and carries it through until the end of the chapter showing how certain statements one could make about the issue are all moral opinions, rather than straight facts thus no one can be right. Also, I revised the age of the earth from 4.6 to 4.5 billion years. I now say that the big bang occurred 13.7 billion, not 15 billion, years ago. Simple Subjectivism. idea that our moral opinions are based on our feelings and not…. Hobbes; The "Natural Condition of Mankind" (State of Nature) - Equality of Need: food, clothing, and shelter. James Rachels and Stuart Rachels’ Te Elements of Moral Philosophy introduces readers to major moral concepts and theories through eloquent explanations and compelling, thought-provoking discussions. ( Log Out /  Theories of obligation: Morality involves impartial duty, the moral persons listens to reason. Our values are nothing more than the expression of our subjective feelings. Rachels, Ch7: The Utilitarian Approach. For value cre-ativity and friendship. The Elements of Moral Philosophy is organized around the great moral theories: Utilitarianism, Kantianism, the Social Contract Theory, and so on. it, abandon the theological right and say God life, friendship, knowledge), Implications of Utilitarianism: Euthanasia. “Elements of Moral Philosophy" Chapter 7 After reading the chapters in “Elements of Moral Philosophy" that come before this one, Bentham’s ideas about utility and how we choose the best possible outcome for all involved seems incredibly optimistic and does not appear to take into account the issues brought forth by psychological or ethical egoism. Again, if we take the long view, I think a utilitarian can answer these objections. The Elements of Moral Philosophy is a 1986 ethics textbook by the philosophers James Rachels and Stuart Rachels.It explains a number of moral theories and topics, including cultural relativism, subjectivism, divine command theory, ethical egoism, social contract theory, utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, and deontology.The book uses real-life examples in explaining the theories. Terms in this set (7) Utilitarianism Generally. But not true. There’s a quote from the Catholically revered Thomas Aquinas on animal cruelty (104). “ The conscientious moral agent is someone who is concerned impartially with the interests of everyone affected by what he or she does; who carefully sifts facts and examines their implications; who accepts principles of conduct only after scrutinizing them to make sure they are sound; who is willing to “listen to reason” even when it means that earlier convictions may have to be revised; … These but not the value them. He just needs to point out that allowing for the violation of rights, in general, would lead to more misery than happiness, and simply enforcing rights unequally is not possible or practical. But institutions and practices—such as promising—can also generate consequences, and these can substantially affect overall utility as well. What are some objections to the argument? He leaves room for debate, but weighs in against, pointing out how some arguments have convinced “most” to abandon the theory. If we know these things won’t happen, then maybe we shouldn’t care about the talking behind one’s back. Short term vs. long term. An interesting one, and one I should save for future reference, is the chapter on animals. 7. - An "ethics of the good"; A "consequentialist" view, - The "good" is happiness understood as "pleasure", - The natural law sees a diversity of humans goods (e.g. these the idea: value other pleasure. Elements of Moral Philosophy” by James Rachel’s: Chapter 1 Summary Morality Moral philosophy is the study of what morality means and what it requires from us. In earlier editions, this chapter came later. 06/29/2012 Rachels offers three utilitarian case studies in chapter 7. - Essential Equality of Human Power: even the strongest can be brought … THE ELEMENTS OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY his own And because the may about any alleged act kindness, can Psychological Egoism must be true. What kind of act it is, the motive behind the act, and the kind of person who did the act don't matter; all that matters in determining if an act is right/wrong is its consequences. not whether his request was granted. Elements of Moral Philosophy 7-8: Utilitarianism. Moral Philosophy 152 notes from 2016 Studies, courses, subjects, and textbooks for your search: Press Enter to view all search results ... Summary Summary Chapter 7: The Utilitarian Approach. a. Subjectivism: The morally right act (MRA) is the act I (the speaker) approve (s) of (this is “simple subjectivism”) b. The new version is 778 words shorter. This still sounds like consequentialism. - An "ethics of the good"; A "consequentialist" view. Suggestions Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. 112 THE ELEMENTS OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY bad situation her She might a great and now she eliminate the tragedy getting her cheer . Rachels McGraw-Hill textbook, The Elements of Moral Philosophy, is now in its fourth edition and is easily the best-selling book of its kind. - What if a terminally ill patient did not want to die, but the greatest utility could be served by killing them anyway? argument, flawed. Therefore, Egoism implies that we should not treat others badly. 9: Are There Absolute Moral Rules? Chapter Summary. An interesting one, and one I should save for future reference, is the chapter on animals. (1997) was Rachels first collection of papers (others are expected posthumously). Virtue theory: Being a moral person is having certain traits of character (virtues); e.g., being kind, generous, courageous, just a. Virtue theory goes well with both public and private life Moral Philosophy 152 notes from 2016. - "Decreasing Marginal Utility": as you add more money to a person's income, the amount of utility each extra dollar produces tends to go down, - For utilitarians, the good is pleasure, and the bad is pain. Fostering a respect for others rights, in the long run, increases the happiness more than sacrificing rights on a case by case basis. 7.3. Summary on the Elements of Moral Philosophy by James Rachels pp. Plausibly, moral claims are not verifiable through empirical observation alone. Hence it is not wrong for man to make use of them, either by killing them or in any other way whatsoever. What is Rachels's aim in chapter 1 of The Elements of Moral Philosophy? Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. "Law of Nature" - describes how it is and how it ought to be. Curious about the major works and figures in the study of the nature of reality and existence? Aquinas thought that it was totally fine to do horrible things to animals, because they are “intended for man’s use in the natural order. With a little thought, a hedonist could point out why the two examples are still bad. 102 THE ELEMENTS OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY Thus, for the classical utilitarians, against are unjustified ability control their own Max Schur Sigmund was help-ing Freud end his the Freud had chosen. I really don’t think Rachels makes his case. Change ). Moral philosophy has three branches. James Rachels’ The Elements of Moral Philosophy Lecture notes by Dan Gaskill . Rachels says that these show that we value creativity and friendship as ends in themselves. Rather, it's an empirical theory of human motivation. - Determine what the good is (i.e. 1. For I may write grandmother a because I I I don’t it. was else, and was one business. Second, if a promising pianist’s hands are injured, this is bad, even if the happiness is replaced by watching tv. - Scarcity: we have to work hard to produce, but even then we may be in short supply. Change ), You are commenting using your Google account. One branch, meta-ethics, investigates big picture questions such as, “What is morality?” “What is justice?” “Is there truth?” […] Chapter Summary. This seems to constitute begging the question. Rachels reduces it to three propositions (109): Rachels attacks hedonism first, using two examples. This first chapter of “Elements of Moral Philosophy” begins by attempting to define morality. Act utilitarianism considers the consequences of individual acts. However, the main version of the Social Contract Theory is egoistic ("the moral rules are justified because it is in your interest to agree to them"). Still, expectations refuted are very unlikely to lead to increased pleasure, which accounts for our aversion to the damaged hands. The chapter on Psychological Egoism was an odd duck, since Psychological Egoism is not one of the great moral theories. Ethical subjectivism has undergone a number of changes. It is simply hard to imagine the above scenarios leading to good, which helps account for our aversion. we believe in different things, both of which cannot be true (…. Samenvatting The elements of moral philosophy James Rachels and Stuart Rachels Aantekeningen Praktische filosofie, college 1-10 Samenvatting Recht in Context Sanne Taekema, Jeanne Gaakeer, Marc Loth Summary Organizational Behaviour Chapter 1-15 Summary Leadership: Theory and Practice Chapter 1-4, 6, 8,9,11,12,14 Book solution "Microeconomics and Behavior", Robert H. Frank; Ian C. … Philosophy is a discipline and a process. One: Only consequences matter. The Elements of Moral Philosophy Chapter 4 summary : Does Morality Depend on Religion? 25. Very little of the subject matter of philosophy is established and uncontroversial, whereas a lot of the subject matter of physics is like that. JAMES RACHELS THE ELEMENTS OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY CHAPTER 8 : THE DEBATE OVER UTILITARIANISM The utilitarian doctrine is that happiness is desirable, and the only thing desirable, as an end; all other things being desirable as means to that end. First, someone ridiculing you behind your back, even if you never know about it and thus never suffer from it, is still bad. Moral theories considered so far. 2. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Problems with NLT. The Argument that Egoism is Logically Inconsistent (see p. 87) The Argument that Egoism is Unacceptably Arbitrary . View example ( Log Out /  But sacrificing justice is still a consequence, so in order for people to object, they are still pointing to the consequences. 1. "He slept like a baby" after the decision! It's not clear that anything … Chapter 2: Cultural Relativism In the last chapter, we examined a variety of arguments in support of different positions on various ethical matters of life and death. 1st fn: to express one's attitude... 2nd fn: (for moral language)…. There are do, not because to, but because ought to. They are simply valuing justice over prevented violence. Rachel expresses different cultures have unique customs and ways of thinking. Chapter 6, "The Idea of a Social Contract" This chapter felt wordy. Utilitarianism. There are moral facts, in the same way that there are facts about stars and planets. b. For this … Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: You are commenting using your account. Create a free website or blog at He brings up the example of bearing false witness in order to stop riots. - It implies that we're ALWAYS right.... - is honestly representi…. Rachels points out that in some cases, more happiness than misery is created by violating people’s rights. The chapter explores two main theories that have been used in attempting to find an answer to the above-mentioned question: The Divine Command theory and the theory of Natural Law. There’s a quote from the Catholically revered Thomas Aquinas on animal cruelty (104). has a different draw- back. Because I've only got about 60 more years to figure this stuff out, Elements of Moral Philosophy 9: Absolute Moral Rules, Elements of Moral Philosophy 5: Ethical Egoism. Rachels, Ch. A pianist’s hands being harmed wouldn’t be bad if it didn’t result in a loss of happiness overall. Also, one could make the case that failing to value justice would lead to worse consequences overall, even if in this one case it would be a benefit. Preview 1 out of 7 pages. New in the Seventh Edition: • M ore detail to the claim that our concept of death has changed over the lasfifty years in Chapter 1 1. Over his career, Rachels wrote 5 books and 85 essays, edited 7 books and gave about 275 professional lectures. Rachels does acknowledge some of the above arguments, and points to some defenses that a utilitarian can use, like pointing out that ultimately, we are all consequentialists. As a discipline, philosophy is typically categorized among the humanities; it is a field out of which others — such as biology, physics, and psychology, and political — have evolved. Next, Rachels confronts consequentialism, using the concept of justice. ( Log Out /  Rachels offers three utilitarian case studies in chapter 7. Chapter 13, "What Would a Satisfactory Moral Theory Be Like?" THE ELEMENTS OF MORAL PHILOSOPHY not are the his knowing best. From Plato to Foucault, we break down the main ideas in philosophical thought. Actions are to be judged right or wrong solely by virtue of their consequences. 1.1 Philosophy: The Quest for Understanding. I made few important changes to this chapter. MORAL THEORIES SO FAR. Created by. 1. are not saddled the wrong expla- nations for our moral principles; rather, are to whatever justifications of them seem appropriate. seems a . 1. The new version is 1,298 words shorter. Moral philosophy is the branch of philosophy that contemplates what is right and wrong. Moral theories specify what makes actions right (and wrong) 2. This would, presumably, lead to better consequences overall, but is still wrong. what is the appropriate goal of human action) - The right act is the one that produces the most good. 199 “Elements of Moral Philosophy” by James Rachels begins by attempting to define morality. Harry Truman and Elizabeth Anscombe on absolute moral rules. a. Truman: Dropping an atom bomb on Japanese cities--though it killed innocent men, women and children--was justified because it saved lives. However, the writing needed work. Search all of SparkNotes Search. Really? It explores the nature of morality and examines how people should live their lives in relation to others. (5/e, 192; 6/e, 173-174) Rights are the second challenge. Chapter 8 attempts to actually outline what utilitarianism is. Socrates’ skeptical question of whether conduct is right because the gods command it or whether the gods command it … ( Log Out /  Philosophy. According to the argument, Egoism provides a justification for following commonsense morality. This is a difficult task since so many possible and rival definitions exist. Talking behind one’s back shows a likely lack of friendship, which makes it more likely that pleasure will be reduced, and pain will be increased. “But it is evident to moral common sense.” (113). sometimes suggested because our promises. Ethical Subjectivism. From → Elements of Moral Philosophy, Moral Theory, Rachels, James. Bentham himself requested his final days. Right acts determined solely by the goodness of the results. But rights exist, therefore this is a challenge to utilitarianism. The world has a certain order - everything has a purpose (Theist: there is a Divine Plan) 2. avayct.

the elements of moral philosophy chapter 7 summary

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