As part of the Berlin, New Hampshire, study (described in more detail later), Ferris (1970) investigated the relation of air pollution to school absences and pulmonary function. They derive their estimate of the impact of air pollution on various diseases by extrapolation form, the literature and by extensive analysis of the urban factor in disease. Chronic lung disease may be divided into a number of classifications on the basis of such, characteristics as etiology, pathologic anatomy, and symptomatology. (1966) The Economics of Air Pollution. 40:207–217. There was a tendency for the air pollution effect to be greatest in the lower socioeconomic classes; this suggests an. EPA-650/1–74–004. 1967, Greenburg et al. A follow-up of Donora ten years after: Methodology and findings. This site is part of the Natural News Network © 2012 All Rights Reserved. Extended Practice If you want to spend more time on this subject, you could prepare and administer a brief quiz, or have the students react to the lesson in their daily journals. Asthma in adults tends to be in the latter classification and, particularly when associated with respiratory infection, often has a peak incidence of attacks during the winter, rather than summer and fall, as observed with allergic individuals. SO 2 is a toxic gas, which is directly harmful to human health. Chicago air pollution study. Stebbings, J.H., Jr. (1971) Chronic respiratory disease among nonsmokers in Hagerstown, Maryland. Health Hazards. Increased attack rates of croup and bronchitis in this group were observed in both the Rocky Mountain and Salt Lake Basin study areas (Finklea et al. have the strongest effect. Arch. When the bronchitis rates in those working in different areas of the countryside around London were compared, the highest rates were observed in the direction in which. Air pollution and respiratory disease. Roy. However, the tabulated data show that in four of 12 months there was a statistically significant inverse correlation of attack rate with temperature. Adverse health effects from SO2 exposure at ambient concentrations have mainly been seen in individuals with asthma as will be summarized in this review. Unfortunately, this is not a highly reliable source of data, particularly if it is used to sample the total amount and types of respiratory disease mortality in a given area. 1:620–622. In this subgroup, the data on croup, which had the largest gradient, showed a 3-year attack rate in the high-pollution area of 26.4 percent, compared with 14.5–16.9 percent in the other communities. In their original study, about 180 London patients were followed during the winter of 1955–1956, and a significant correlation of worsening of symptoms with smoke and sulfur dioxide was observed. Zeidberg, L.D., R.J.M.Horton, and E.Landau (1967) The Nashville air pollution study. Xu W(1), Li J(2), Zhang W(3), Wang Z(4), Wu J(5), Ge X(3), Wu J(6), Cao Y(5), Xie Y(5), Ying D(2), Wang Y(2), Wang L(5), Qiao Z(7), Jia J(8). Excess mortality during acute air pollution episodes was reported in a series of studies by Greenburg and his colleagues (Glasser et al. Brit. J. Retrospective questioning of residents of Donora after the 1948 air pollution disaster revealed that 87.6 percent of the asthmatics reported respiratory symptoms during this episode, compared with 77.2 percent of people with cardiac disease and 42.7 percent of the general population (Schrenk et al. 1974). Particles were not consistently related to eye irritation, but were correlated to some extent with cough. Nevertheless, the observed correlation is remarkably high for a study of this sort and strongly suggests an effect of suspended sulfates. 21:635–642. Mean daily sulfur dioxide in Harlem was similar to or slightly higher than that in Brooklyn. Health 14:162–171. The disparity between asthma and eczema hospitalization rates. (1960). Fairchild and his colleagues (1972) used a mouse influenza model to study the effects of sulfur dioxide. 004. Glasser, M., L.Greenburg, and F.Field (1967). One approach to assessing the economic costs is to use the figures provided in the CHESS New York City (Love et al. 2–75 to 2–91. Greenburg, L., M.B.Jacobs, B.M.Drolette, F.Field, and M.M.Braverman ((1962). In U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. Treatment of an uncomplicated attack is generally aimed at bronchodilatation by pharmacologic means. Again, it should be emphasized that the Nashville area was relatively unpolluted at the time of study. A Symposium. Hodgson, T.A., Jr. (1970). Norm. Positive association with suspended particulate air pollution. analysis was performed for October–December, whereas that of Borrows et al. When deviations in daily deaths were compared with daily sulfur dioxide concentrations, a sharp increase in mortality was noted for the days when the sulfur dioxide concentrations were greater than 0.3 ppm. Arch. Logan, W.P.D. Other less significant sources include chemical and allied … EPA-650/1–74–004. Selection of 7 days when there was considerable variability in suspended particle concentration in different areas of Chicago and analysis of symptom severity by area of residence resulted in a slightly negative correlation with particle concentration. A mean symptom score was calculated by assigning one, two, or three points to the subject’s daily description of whether he felt better, the same, or worse. In U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development. Lancet 1: 1147–1152. An unexplained excess in prevalence in Wales may represent an ethnic difference. 2–14 to 2–54. Sulphur dioxide has been linked to cardiovascular disease. Health 18:523–530. An analysis of stimulus-response relationships. In the United States, the term “chronic obstructive pulmonary disease” has often been used, and this can be divided into two types=Patients with type A, in which alveolar destruction predominates, tend to have severe shortness of breath, but little cough or sputum production. Obstruction to air flow during expiration is an important part of the clinical picture in patients with chronic bronchitis and emphysema. To the extent that it is inappropriate to use one monitoring station to characterize a large area, the approach of Buechley et al. Health 15:167–176. No data on weather or on other pollutants are given. At high concentrations, gaseous SOx can harm trees and plants by damaging foliage and decreasing growth. Scand. Dohan, F.C. Viral infections are very common and include mild upper respiratory tract infections usually referred to as colds. Arch. What are the health effects of SO 2? Summers, G.A. Although the increased prevalence of chronic respiratory disease in urban adults is conceivably due in part to the population density and greater mobility—leading to a higher incidence of endemic and epidemic respiratory tract infections, compared with that in more isolated rural areas—this would not explain the major differences observed. The much lower association observed by Buechley et al. However, such an exercise would be grossly misleading and would undoubtedly lead to erroneous conclusions. Sulfur dioxide acid rain usually forms high in the clouds when sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides react with water, oxygen and oxidants. When weekly averages were computed for bronchitis incidence, prevalance, pollution, and meteorologic factors, a slight nonsignificant correlation was noted among the various illness and environmental factors in the same week. Health 25:166–173. Pulmonary function was not correlated with pollution in black children. Amer. Accordingly, the asthma data are inadequate to support firmly the investigators’ contention of a pollutant effect in the “low III” community. No consistent effect of air pollution on total school absence rates or school absences due to respiratory illnesses were observed. Dis. Sultz, H.A., J.G.Feldman, E.R.Schlesinger, and W.E.Mosher (1970) An effect of continued exposure to air pollution on the incidence of chronic childhood allergic disease. These results are somewhat different from those reported by Gregory for bronchitics (discussed above). In the Salt Lake Basin area (House et al. Proc. Programs. Proceedings of an International Symposium organized by the British Occupational Hygiene Society in London, 14–23 September, 1970. Response rates for the questionnaire were about 80 percent. Manhattan and to a measure of low temperature. Buechley, R.W., W.B.Riggan, V.Hasselblad, and J.B.Van Bruggen (1973). Health Effects of Fossil Fuel Combustion: A Quantitative Approach (Presentation and Application of a Health-Effects Model) From report on “Health Effects of Energy Systems: A Quantitative. J. Amer. example of the epidemiologic approach in which a geographic comparison of death rates is used to ascertain the effect of air pollution was reported by Ramazzini in 1713 (Wright tr. It appears that a particularly crucial subject for epidemiologic study is the extent of mortality associated with daily variations in sulfur oxides and particles, including evaluation of the suggestion that there is no threshold for this effect. It would be possible to graph these estimates and analyze them statistically to arrive at some quantitative estimate of the amount of morbidity and mortality associated with measured concentrations of individual pollutants. Ferris, B.G., Jr., I.T.T.Higgins, M.W.Higgins, and J.M.Peters (1973). Proc. Lee, A.M., and J.F.Fraumeni, Jr. (1969). (1970) evaluated the incidence of hospitalization in Erie County, New York, for asthma, eczema (an allergic skin disorder), and diabetes mellitus in children under 15 years old, in comparison with total suspended particle concentrations and socioeconomic status. Finklea, J.F., J.Goldberg, V.Hasselblad, C.M.Shy, and C.G.Hayes, (1974). (1961). The vasodilating and bronchodilating effects of sulfur dioxide are mediated via ATP-dependent calcium channels and L-type ("dihydropyridine") calcium channels. After adjustment for these two variables, air pollution had only a small and not statistically significant effect. The air monitoring data for Barberton show a peak yearly mean 24-hr concentration of total suspended particles of 109 ug/m3 in 1969, which decreased to 77 ug/m3 in 1973, and peak yearly sulfur dioxide of 1.11 mg/100 cm2 per day. Higgins, I.T.T. Meteorologic factors, particularly low temperature, play an improtant role in acute exacerbations of disease and in mortality. For some pulmonary disorders, there is generally good agreement as to the diagnostic criteria necessary to define the entity. Introduction of lag periods of up to 5 days did not result in any significant correlations with sulfur dioxide. had been born in the first week of March 1946 and were followed regularly as part of a comprehensive health survey. Chronic bronchitis and the catarrhal child. The author points out that the delay in the increased incidence of bronchitis may be due to the lack of work absence data for Saturdays and Sundays and the tendency of workmen to finish out the week before going off sick. Paper presented at the American Medical Association’s Air Pollution Medical Research Conference, October 2–3, Drake Hotel, Chicago, Illinois. All rights reserved. Health Consequences of Sulfur Oxides: A Report from CHESS, 1970–1971. 7:317–326. Black children had an even greater increase than white children in lower respiratory infection, croup, and bronchitis associated with pollution. CHESS studies to derive an estimate of the health costs of sulfur oxides and particles of $0.9–3.2 billion. Higgins, I.T.T., P.D.Oldham, A.L.Cochrane, and J.C.Gilson (1956). The most significant anthropogenic emission sources of SO2 are from combustion of sulphur-containing fossil fuels, smelting sulphide ores, and petroleum refining. Lambert, P.M., and D.D.Reid (1970). The first point is discussed below and seems to constitute a valid objection. Zeidberg et al. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office. to follow a cohort of people. The data were strongly influenced by seasonal cycles, and removal of time trends greatly decreased the positive relationship between respiratory disease illness absences and pollution. Environ. Some data are given in the appendix concerning air pollution in 1962–1963. 95% of the SOx emitted from the combustion of fossil fuel is sulphur dioxide. BEAG-HE/EE 12/74. These include the necessity of changing the spirometer in the middle of the year because of equipment difficulties, the higher educational status of the Charlotte schoolchildren’s parents, the greater degree of school busing in Charlotte, and the use of different personnel to perform the testing in the two cities (it is hoped that this was overcome by supervisory personnel). Bronchitis—sickness absence in London transport. 4–109 to 5–119. More recently, Howard (1974) noted. 11:23–26. Inhaled Particles III. In the end the jury sustained the manufacturer, and vitriol was found not guilty. Brit. However, this almost disappeared when partial correlation coefficients were calculated in which each variable was adjusted for the others. However, some observations indirectly suggest a relationship and clearly indicate that more study of this subject is required. The quantitative effect, with an estimate of the dollar benefit of pollution abatement is considered. Arch. At high concentrations: can cause life-threatening accumulation of fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema). Rev. Surprisingly, we found that SO2 was generated from the PU running track, and even such a low concentration of SO2 could induce severe lung inflammation with hemorrhage, inflammatory cell … Epidemiologic studies of respiratory tract morbidity have used a number of measuring devices, including daily diaries, questionnaires, work and school absence rates, hospitalization rates, clinic visits, and the testing of pulmonary function. Air quality standard . As pointed out by the CHESS investigators, this is “a finding difficult to accept in the light of other evidence.” Furthermore, the relative effect of air pollution was only one-eleventh that of cigarette-smoking in the Chicago military recruit study. These have already been described. Pulmonary effects of sulfur dioxide exposure in the Syrian hamster. A comparative study of England and the United States has been reported by Holland et al. Air Pollut. However, Ashley (1967) reported slight negative correlations of both smoke and sulfur dioxide with lung cancer, despite high positive correlations of these two pollutants with bronchitis mortality in residential areas of Great Britain. From the Berlin data, multiple regression equa-. Nevertheless, the general findings appear to support the contention that power-plant effluents are instrumental in potentiating asthma attacks. If the findings on pneumonia and hospitalization are ignored, the data show a slight but inconsistent effect of sulfur dioxide and total suspended sulfate concentrations higher than air quality standards (in conjunction with a gradient for suspended sulfates) on the lower respiratory infection rate in children. Rao et al. Health 18:536–543. Fairchild GA. Inhalation of ozone and sulfur dioxide inhibited influenza virus growth in the nose of mice. J. Because all the social indexes were highly intercorrelated, it was difficult to disentangle their individual effects. Burton, M.Pravda, R.S.Chapman, and A.A.Cohen (1974) Ventilatory function in schoolchildren: 1970–1971 New York studies, pp. MyNAP members SAVE 10% off online. The standardized mortality ratios for chronic respiratory disease mortality in this group were 76 in air pollution category 1 (total mean suspended particles, less than 80 ug/m3), 98 in category 2 (80–100 ug/m3), 112 in category 3 (100–135 ug/m3), and 137 in the highest air pollution category (over 135 ug/m3). However, the authors note that all four factors together accounted for only about 10–15 percent of the total variation; other determinants, possibly including host factors, are probably also important. Furthermore, during the latter part of the study, the smoke and sulfur dioxide concentrations were still appreciably above American air quality standards. The direct irritant properties of sulfur dioxide on the eyes and respiratory tract mucosa are due to the acid formation. This increase does not appear to be accounted for by the somewhat greater number of older people examined in Molo. Med. Finklea, J.F., C.M.Shy, G.J.Love, C.G.Hayes, W.C.Nelson, R.S.Chapman, and D. E.House (1974). Sulfur dioxide is particularly detrimental to the respiratory system’s overall health. pollution. Monitoring data are not given. On the basis of these figures, a total savings of $2.08 billion in health costs would be associated with a reduction in air pollution by 50 percent. Hammer et al. Loudon et al. Although benzopyrene is a highly potent carcinogen in many systems, lung cancer had previously been observed only after tracheal instillation of this agent, and not during. Amer. Each of these factors except power-station proximity was significantly correlated (p<0.001) with the mortality of infants less than a year old. This does not negate the appropriateness of the British findings to chronic respiratory disease observed in the United States.

sulfur dioxide health effects

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