The first three are in the domestic school: The Progressives, The Consensus Historians, and The New Left. Donate or volunteer today! These thoughts formed the origin of this school. The School of Naturalists or Yin-yang (陰陽家/阴阳家; Yīnyángjiā; Yin-yang-chia; "School of Yin-Yang") was a philosophy that synthesized the concepts of yin-yang and the Five Elements; Zou Yan is considered the founder of this school. Hundred Schools of Thought In the turbulent Spring and Autumn Period (770-476BC) and Warring States Period (475-221BC), many schools of thought were flourishing. The Agriculturalist king is not paid by the government through its treasuries; his livelihood is derived from the profits he earns working in the fields, not his leadership. There was never an organized group of people describing themselves as "Legalists," for example, and the term "Daoist" was only coined in the Eastern Han after having succeeded the Western Han's Huang-Lao movement. The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophers and schools that had flourished from 770 to 221 BC, an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China.It is known as the Golden Age of Chinese philosophy because various thoughts and ideas were developed and discussed freely. Some urged a return to the teachings of the sages of old, while others sought better conditions by radical change. Now Teng on the contrary possesses granaries and treasuries, so the ruler is supporting himself by oppressing the people.". The Hundred Schools of Thought (4 volumes) (Chinese Edition) Philosophy from the 100 schools of thought. The Hanshu (漢書) adds four more to make up the Ten Schools (十家; Shijia). The source code for the WIKI 2 extension is being checked by specialists of the Mozilla Foundation, Google, and Apple. Societal goals- Mencius. 0 reviews that are not currently recommended. thanks to wiki people! See also: Nine Schools of Thought and Hundred Schools of Thought. Change ), You are commenting using your Facebook account. Humanistic psychology developed as a response to psychoanalysis and behaviorism. This also explains its Chinese name, which literally means "school of minor-talks". News; Developed by Wilhelm Wundt in the 1800s. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Other articles where Hundred Schools is discussed: education: Dong (Eastern) Zhou (770–256 bce): …China’s intellectual history, when the Hundred Schools of thought vied with one another to expound their views and proposals for attaining a happy social and political order. This phenomenon has been called the Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought (百家爭鳴/百家争鸣; bǎijiā zhēngmíng; pai-chia cheng-ming; "hundred schools contend"). In comparison, over half of the titles on the first list were at least 20 years old in 1908, with many of them averaging between 50 to 100 years old. The Hundred Schools of Thought China Table of Contents The Spring and Autumn and Warring States periods, though marked by disunity and civil strife, witnessed an unprecedented era of cultural prosperity--the "golden age" of China. The School of Agriculture (農家/农家, Nongjia) encouraged farming and agriculture and taught farming and cultivation techniques, as a means of supplying enough food for the country. Download file to see previous pages The phenomenon has remained in the history books of the Chinese nation and given the title “Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought”. This school focused on practical matters instead of any moral principle, so it stressed political and diplomatic tactics, and debate and lobbying skill. Sun Tzu and Sun Bin were influential leaders. Its written legacy lies in the Confucian Classics, which later became the foundation of traditional society. The Hundred Schools of Thought were philosophers and schools that had flourished from 770 to 221 BC, an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China. School of the Medical Skills (方技家; Fangjijia) is a school which studied Medicine and health. A traditional source for this period is the Shiji, or Records of the Grand Historian by Sima Qian. ", The Agriculturalists believed that the ideal government, modeled after the semi-mythical governance of Shennong, is led by a benevolent king, one who works alongside the people in tilling the fields. Philosophical Taoism or Daoism (道家; Dàojiā; Tao-chia; "School of the Way") developed into the second most significant stream of Chinese thought. Tâi-lô. Early Imperial Period. Edited by Edward Craig. Site Navigation. The Shorter Routledge Encyclopedia of Philosophy. The many schools of Buddhism are rather diverse in their thought, bound together primarily by the Buddha’s ideas on suffering. Indeed, all the thoughts which were discussed by and originated from non-famous people on the street were included in this school. sweet, filing head my head with knowledge! It should be stressed that only the Ru, or Confucians and the Mohists were actual organized schools of teachers and disciples during this period. This school spawned around 1902 and began to fade around 1945. The Hundred Schools of Thought (4 volumes) (Chinese Edition) [meng ke] on Amazon.com. Thanks for the info. Other Martial Arts Nearby. Restaurants. Browse Nearby. Due to its stress on individualism, it influenced later generations of Taoists. Humanistic psychology instead focused on individual free will, personal growth and the concept of self-actualization. Birth places of notable Chinese philosophers from Hundred Schools of Thought in the Zhou dynasty. Furthermore, he contended that a king must be virtuous in order to rule the state properly.  His theory attempted to explain the universe in terms of basic forces in nature: the complementary agents of yin (dark, cold, female, negative) and yang (light, hot, male, positive) and the Five Elements or Five Phases (water, fire, wood, metal, and earth). The role of teachers also evolves according to the dominant accepted philosophy of the time. school of thought definition: 1. a set of ideas or opinions that a group of people share about a matter: 2. a set of ideas or…. HAN FEI ZI, … Phone number (407) 279-1533. The foreign policy group consists of The Nationalists, The Realists, and The Radicals. There were many accretions to the body of Confucian thought, both immediately and over the millennia, from within and without the Confucian school. The four most influential schools of thought that evolved during this period were Confucianism, Taoism, Mohism, and Legalism. Congratulations on this excellent venture… what a great idea!  His epistemology can be regarded as primitive materialist empiricism; he believed that human cognition ought to be based on one's perceptions – one's sensory experiences, such as sight and hearing – instead of imagination or internal logic, elements founded on the human capacity for abstraction. Nightlife. LEGALISM. The Agriculturalists supported the fixing of prices, in which all similar goods, regardless of differences in quality and demand, are set at exactly the same, unchanging price.. Philosophical schools of thought have had a profound influence on approaches to teaching and learning, as well as on the progression of human society. Its formulation is often attributed to the legendary sage Laozi ("Old Master"), who is said to predate Confucius, and Zhuangzi (369–286 BC). Our mission is to provide a free, world-class education to anyone, anywhere. Best of Orlando. And I mentioned that by the time Mencius and Xunzi have appeared, there's been a critique of Confucianism that has been launched. The School of Names or Logicians (名家; Míngjiā; Ming-chia; "School of names") grew out of Mohism, with a philosophy that focused on definition and logic. The effect of the combined work of Confucius, the codifier and interpreter of a system of relationships based on ethical behavior, and Mencius, the synthesizer and developer of applied Confucianist thought, was to provide traditional Chinese society with a comprehensive framework by which to order virtually every aspect of life. Philosophies of the Warring States Period. The Hundred Schools of Thought (Chinese: 諸子百家; Pinyin: zhū zǐ bǎi jiā) was an era of great cultural and intellectual expansion in China that lasted from 770 to 222 BCE. Bian Que and Qibo were well-known scholars. PLAY. : 'inclusive love/care'): Mozi believed that "everyone is equal before heaven", and that people should seek to imitate heaven by engaging in the practice of collective love. The intellectual society of this era was characterized by itinerant scholars, who were often employed by various state rulers as advisers on the methods of government, war, and diplomacy. Hundred Schools of Thought In the turbulent Spring and Autumn Period (770-476BC) and Warring States Period (475-221BC), many schools of thought were flourishing. Two of the earliest and existing Chinese medical works are Huangdi Neijing and Shanghan Lun. The achievement of social goals, according to Mozi, necessitated the unity of thought and action. In many ways the opposite of rigid Confucian morality, Taoism was for many of its adherents a complement to their ordered daily lives. The focus of Taoism is on the individual within the natural realm rather than the individual within society; accordingly, the goal of life for each individual is seeking to adjust oneself and adapting to the rhythm of the natural (and the supernatural) world, to follow the Way (tao) of the universe, and to live in harmony. Confucius (551–479 BC), or Kongzi ("Master Kong"), looked back to the early days of the Zhou dynasty for an ideal socio-political order. It was once widespread but fell to obscurity before the Han dynasty. You could also do it yourself at any point in time. He believed that the only effective system of government necessitated prescribed relationships for each individual: "Let the ruler be a ruler and the subject a subject". You could be the first review for Hundred Schools of Thought. CONFUCIANISM. Competing Schools and Warring States Section 1: The Hundred Schools of Thought The last module, we talked about Confucius and Mencius and Xunzi. The Hundred Schools of Thought (Chinese: 諸子百家; pinyin: zhūzǐ bǎijiā) were philosophies and schools that flourished from the 6th century to 221 BC during the Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period of ancient China.. 21-36, viewed 23 October 2020, doi: 10.4135/9781446200872.n2. General schools of thought: Philosophy has a number of well-defined schools of thought. To install click the Add extension button. 600-200 BCE. A scholar serving as an official would usually follow Confucian teachings, but at leisure or in retirement might seek harmony with nature as a Taoist recluse. 1045 – 771 BCE. To Confucius, the functions of government and social stratification were facts of life to be sustained by ethical values; thus his ideal human was the junzi, which is translated as "gentleman" or "superior person". Their theories influenced later China and even East Asia more broadly. The Shiji (史記) lists Confucianism, Daoism, the Yin-Yang School, Legalism, Mohism, and the Logicians within the Hundred Schools of Thought. Mohism or Moism (墨家; Mòjiā; Mo-chia; "School of Mo") was developed by followers of Mozi (also referred to as Mo Di; 470–c.391 BC). Politically, Taoism advocates for rule through inaction, and avoiding excessive interference. Confucius and the Hundred Schools of Thought. He regarded offensive warfare as wasteful and advocated pacifism or at the most, defensive fortification. The School of "Minor-talks" (小说家; 小說家; Xiaoshuojia) was not a unique school of thought. Change ), You are commenting using your Twitter account. The autobiographical section of the Shiji, the "Taishigong Zixu" (太史公自序), refers to the schools of thought described below. ( Log Out / Another group is the School of the Military (兵家; Bingjia) that often studied and discussed about what westerners called Philosophy of war. The "Yiwenzhi" of the Hanshu claims that the officials working for the government during the early Zhou Dynasty lost their position when the authority of the Zhou rulers began to break down in the Eastern Zhou period. ( Log Out / Episode 1: Structuralism Origin. Classical Period. Note: it is important to be aware that an author may belong to several schools (eg Sartre is a phenomenologist, a Marxist, and an existentialist). HundrED Schools are a global network of innovative educators and empowered students who are willing to experiment, dialogue and innovate. Mozi advocated frugality, condemning the Confucian emphasis on ritual and music, which he denounced as extravagant. the Confucian School) was born from the officials of the Ministry of Education; the Taoists from the historians; the Yin-yang School from the astronomers; the Legalist School from the Ministry of Justice; the School of Names from the Ministry of Rituals; the Mohist School from the Guardians of the Temple; the School of Diplomacy from the Ministry of Embassies; the School of Miscellany from the government counselors; the School of Agriculture from the Ministry of the Soil and Wheat; the School of Minor Talks from the minor officials. Routledge Publishing. During the Han Dynasty, the most practical elements of Confucianism and Legalism were taken to form a sort of synthesis, marking the creation of a new form of government that would remain largely intact until the late 19th century. The Hundred Schools Part 2. Birth places of notable Chinese philosophers from Hundred Schools of Thought in Zhou Dynasty. In particular, the School of Scholars (i.e. , Unlike the Confucians, the Agriculturalists did not believe in the division of labour, arguing instead that the economic policies of a country need to be based upon an egalitarian self sufficiency. I use WIKI 2 every day and almost forgot how the original Wikipedia looks like. The thoughts and ideas discussed and refined during this period have profoundly influenced lifestyles and social consciousness up to the present day in East Asian countries and the East Asian diaspora around the world. Tsu-tsú pah-ka. Legalism greatly influenced the philosophical basis for the imperial form of government. Yangism was a form of ethical egoism founded by Yang Zhu. At that time, there were some government officials responsible for collecting ideas from non-famous people on the street and report to their senior. "Letting a hundred flowers blossom and a hundred schools of thought contend is the policy for promoting progress in the arts and the sciences and a flourishing socialist culture in our land." About. Scholars from this school were good orators, debaters and tacticians. The School of Diplomacy or School of Vertical and Horizontal [Alliances] (纵横家; 縱橫家; Zonghengjia) specialized in diplomatic politics; Zhang Yi and Su Qin were representative thinkers. During this era of great division, great Chinese philosophers like Confucius, Laozi, Li Kui, Shang Yang, Mozi, and Zou Yan among others laid the foundation of the Hundred Schools of Thought, which fu… Many philosophic schools of thought emerged during this period of political and social turmoil, and they are symbolically known as the. Eastern Zhou. Western Zhou. Like the ancient Greece, China has served as a bedrock of ideas and philosophies in the world since time immemorial. Its philosophy rested on the idea of impartial care (Chinese: 兼愛; pinyin: Jian Ai; lit. This is often translated and popularized as "universal love", which is misleading as Mozi believed that the essential problem of human ethics was an excess of partiality in compassion, not a deficit in compassion as such. School of Thought: Healthy Marriage and Relationship Education Matters to Our Youth Introduction Relationships are very important to high school-age youth. In this way, the officials spread all over the country and started to teach their own field of knowledge as private teachers. Jul 22, 2015. The most notable Logician was Gongsun Longzi. Spring and Autumn period (Chunqiu . CONFUCIOUS, ANALECTS. Almost immediately, other theories began to emerge and vie for dominance in psychology. The first school of thought in psychology. This phenomenon has been called the Contention of a Hundred Schools of Thought these thoughts and ideas have profoundly influenced lifestyles and social consciousness up to the present day in East Asian countries. His political philosophy bears a resemblance to divine-rule monarchy: the population ought always to obey its leaders, as its leaders ought always to follow the will of heaven. Th… The Legalists exalted the state above all, seeking its prosperity and martial prowess over the welfare of the common people. Here is a list of the major schools of philosophy:. Zyu1-zi2 baak3-gaa1. This period ended with the rise of the imperial Qin dynasty and the subsequent purge of dissent. Edward B. Titchener is also strongly associated with this school of thought. Some are non-theistic while others have a … Would you like Wikipedia to always look as professional and up-to-date? ( Log Out / The study of psychology can benefit anyone interested in human behavior by giving insight into those in her life. All the other schools were invented later to describe groups of texts that expressed similar ideas. Philosophies of the Warring States Period. Show all. Southern Min. Major Schools of Thought in Psychology. Bronze Age ca. The ideas and thoughts refined and discussed in this period have since then intensely influenced the social consciousness and the lifestyles of the people up to the modern days not just in China but the whole of East Asia .  The philosophy is founded on the notion that human society originates with the development of agriculture, and societies are based upon "people's natural propensity to farm. His aim was to re-evaluate behavior, not emotions or attitudes. Hundred Thoughts Preschool also boasts a very diverse student population with children from more than 10 nationalities and this provides a multi-cultural environment for the children to learn from one another. This video will review the three major schools of thought that emerged in China as a response to the Warring States period. Syncretism, or the School of Miscellany (杂家; 雜家; Zajia) integrated teachings from different schools; for instance, Lü Buwei found scholars from different schools to write a book called Lüshi Chunqiu cooperatively. Mencius strived for his work, when combined with Confucius's work, to have an effect that would provide traditional Chinese societies with a thorough framework that would control practically every single aspect of life.