Himalayan blackberry spreads by root and stem fragments, and birds and omnivorous mammals, such as foxes, bears, and coyotes consume berries and disperse seeds. Alien and invasive species lists in terms of sections 66(1), 67(1), 70(1)(a), 71(3) and 71A of the National Environmental Management: Biodiversity Act, 2004 (Act No. Portland University. Seeds germinate in spring and once seedlings are established much of the subsequent reproduction is vegetative. Mercier D, 2012. Rubus armeniacus Focke – Himalayan blackberry. R armeniacus was intentionally introduced into a number of areas for its production of fruits where it has since escaped cultivation. Controlling Himalayan blackberry in the Pacific Northwest (Rubus armeniacus [R. discolor, R. procerus]). Invasive plant species in the Swedish flora: Developing criteria and definitions, and assessing the invasiveness of individual taxa. The environment in practice 0629, Bern, Madeleine Florin, Consultant, The Netherlands. Growth and spread of the species has been reported to be rapid (Caplan and Yeakley, 2006). Chromosome numbers of Polish brambles (Rubus L., Rosaceae) III. As in raspberries, they too grow on shrubs known as "brambles. Himalayan blackberry out-competes low growing native vegetation through shading and build-up of leaf litter and dead stems. www.cal-ipc.org. Himalayan blackberry. The species tolerates occasional flooding with both fresh and brackish water. ©Leslie J. Mehrhoff/University of Connecticut/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US. Honey bees have also been reported to frequently visit the flowering species. www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pdf/shrubs/Rubus%20discolor.pdf. The removal of R. armeniacus in areas where it is invasive and poses an ecological threat results in significant economic costs. For example in the USA, Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii), ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Oregon white oak (Quercus garryana), are particularly susceptible to competition from R. armeniacus (Soll, 2004). In their second year, the shoots become smooth and produce flowering canes whose smaller leaves have 3 leaflets. Discolores in the Czech Republic and adjacent regions. The leaves of the first year shoots are 3 to 8 in long and consist of 5 leaflets arranged like the fingers of a hand. Rubus armeniacus Focke, an unnoticed invader in the Hungarian flora. Environmental Science and Management Faculty Publications and Presentations Paper 61. Rubus armeniacus. Trávníček B, Zázvorka J, 2005. http://aknhp.uaa.alaska.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Rubus_discolor_BIO_RUDI2.pdf. Hammer K; Cifarelli S; Perrino P; Laghetti G, 2004. Oregon, USA: Oregon State University. 18:00 . Salem, Oregon, USA: Oregon Deparment of Agriculture. Georgia, USA: Centre for invasive species and ecosystem health, University of Georgia. It is also often found in sites following fire as it is well adapted to colonize recently burnt sites (USA Forestry Service, 2015). The authors provide a full description and illustration of R. anglocandicans and assert that it is separate from R. armeniacus and that R. armeniacus has not in fact been recorded present in Australia. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Shaw says the Himalayan blackberry erodes soil and crowds out native plants and animals. Ceska (1999) reports that it is a common garden escape in nearly all European countries. "The plant is native to sub-arctic Europe and nowadays grown at commercial scale in North America, particularly in the USA, to as far as Siberia. Canes grow up to 3 metres in height and 12 metres in length at maturity. Atlas of Living Australia. Surrey, UK: Surrey Botanical Society, 18 pp. Factors affecting the regrowth of Himalaya blackberry (Rubus armeniacus). Willdenowia, 45(1):119-129. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. Kollmann J, 1998. The Rubus genus is large and very complex consisting of more than 750 species. Fruits are up to 2 cm in diameter, oblong to spherical, black, shiny and hairless. www.botanicgardens.eu/aliens/aliens.xls. 10 of 2004) as set out in the schedule hereto. It is noted that the species is still spreading in Europe and there has been some speculation that it has potential to become invasive in this region (Allen 2003; Loos and Keil, 2006). http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html. "It grows into the forest, it grows in full sun. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. Molewa BEE, 2014. Much of the information in this datasheet is sourced from publications that explicitly specify R. armeniacus but in some cases information pertaining to R. discolor when referred to as Himalayan blackberry or a synonym of R. armeniacus is used. Taxonomy of Rubus ser. Rubus is a large and diverse genus of flowering plants in the rose family, Rosaceae, subfamily Rosoideae, with 250–700 species.. Raspberries, blackberries, and dewberries are common, widely distributed members of the genus. "It can grow in dry soils, wet soils," Shaw says. In North America, especially during the winter months, deer (Cervidae family), elk (Cervus canadensis), rabbits (Leporidae family), porcupines (Erethizontidae species), beavers (Castor species) and mountain beavers (Aplodontia rufa) have been reported to consume leaves, buds, twigs and the cambium (Klein, 2011; Francis, 2014). Boratyn'ska K, 1995. It was introduced outside of its native range as a cultivated crop for the production of sweet fruits. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Invaded range of the blackberry pathogen Phragmidium violaceum in the Pacific Northwest of the USA and the search for its provenance. North American Fungi, 6(14):1. http://www.pnwfungi.org/articles_volume_6.htm, Caplan JS; Yeakley JA, 2006. However, in wetlands, cutting to ground level has proven effective as without the supporting canes, roots are reportedly unable to survive in anaerobic conditions (Soll, 2004). Pest Notes, 7434. This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Flower stalks are prickly, with robust stems (canes) that support large, flattened and hooked or straight prickles. The species is commonly found in disturbed areas such as along railway lines, roadsides and fence lines (DiTomaso et al., 2013). The seed coat is impermeable and the embryo remains dormant until it breaks (Ensley, 2015). Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. in the Macedonian Socialist Republic. Both its scientific name and origin have been the subject of much confusion, with much of the literature referring to it as either Rubus procerus or Rubus discolor, and often mistakenly citing its origin as western European. anoplothyrsus Sudre and other cultivated blackberries in Italy. 2007 Norwegian black List - ecological risk analysis of alien species. It is abundant in riparian zones, edges of wetlands and other areas that experience occasional flooding such as irrigation channels. They’re actually called drupelets and are part of an aggregate fruit. It has the tendency to form dense thickets making it difficult for shade intolerant species to survive. It can prevent the establishment of shade intolerant trees such as Garry Oak and ponderosa pine. These include hand pulling, hand hoeing, cutting, burning, goat grazing, digging and removal with machines such as disking or ploughing. Wallingford, UK: CABI. It has become widely cultivated and naturalized in many parts of the world. Király G, Trávnícek B, Žíla V, 2014. Natural Areas Journal, 26(4):376-382. http://www.naturalarea.org, Francis JK, 2014. The canes can root at the tips and form daughter plants when touching the ground. R. armeniacus is considered to be a member of the broad R.fruticosus L. aggregate. It may not be permissible to grow the plant in the region and people may be required to remove it if it seeds naturally. Thickets have been reported to produce between 7,000-13,000 seeds /m2. Flowers are white to rose coloured and have five transversely arranged petals. Heredity, 109(5):320-328. http://www.nature.com/hdy. California, USA: University of California State Wide Integrated Pest Management Program. Himalayan blackberry stems (often called canes) are large, thick, arching, star-shaped in cross-section, and have big thorns. maximo and it became the most frequently cultivated blackberry in Europe. DiTomaso JM, 2010. Rachis and petiole armed with heavy, recurved prickles. http://www.invasive.org/gist/moredocs/rubarm01.pdf, Spjut RW, 2015. The disease causes leaf-spots and blights on leaves of R. armeniacus. Himalayan blackberry is a mostly evergreen perennial with nearly erect stems that clamber and sprawl when they grow long; they can reach up to 35 feet in length. Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry); fruits and foliage. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). The species has been reported to tolerate temperatures as low as -18°C and as high as 37°C. A study across 91 islands in the Gulf Islands of British Columbia, Canada and the San Juan Islands of Washington state, USA, confirmed that birds play a key role in spreading R. armeniacus (Bennett et al., 2011). Evans and Weber (2003) recently identified the R. fruticosus aggregate in Australia as a biotype of R. anglocandicans. Aboretum Kórnickie:5-9. ©Eric Coombs/Oregon Department of Agriculture/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US. The fruit are less than 2 cm aggregates of black, shiny, roundish drupelets. In: Aboretum Kórnickie, 5-9. USDA Forest Service, 2015. Compendium record. Thickets increase flooding and erosion potential by out-competing deep-rooted native shrubs that would otherwise provide bank stability. CCES 213. Himalayan blackberry can be distinguished by its smaller flowers ( 2-3 cm across ), erect and archy stems, and its 3-5 oval leaflets with whitew hairs. (Pomoloske karakteristike nekih divljih vrsti kupine (Rubus spp) u SR Makedoniji.). This has been confirmed for New Zealand, however, its presence in Australia and South Africa is contested due to taxonomic confusion. (Észrevétlen özönfaj a magyar flórában, az örmény szeder (Rubus armeniacus Focke)). 8. Himalayan blackberry Rubus discolor Weihe and Nees., Alaska, USA: University of Alaska Anchorage. We send "General interest" updates monthly and all other updates from time to time. http://extension.oregonstate.edu/coos/sites/default/files/agriculture/cces213blackberryrustfungusmay2012.pdf, PIER, 2015. Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry); seeds from fruits. http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_ruar9.pdf, The Plant List, 2013. Himalayan blackberry., USDA Forest Service, University of Puerto Rico. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Thompson MM, 1995. On the other hand, when established, R. armeniacus thickets provide habitats and a source of food for many birds and both small and large mammals. Pullman, Washington, USA: USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Plant Materials Center, 3 pp. A PIER risk assessment gave this species a high risk score of 24 (PIER, 2015). Wittenberg R, 2005. R. armeniacus is found in temperate environments, from coastal estuaries to inland upland sites as high as 1,800 m above sea level (Stannard, 2014). http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/10999?show=full. European Botanic Gardens Consortium, 2014. It tolerates a wide range of soil types but is limited to temperate and continental climates (USDA-NRCS, 2015). Himalayan blackberry (HBB) is a native of Western Europe. Berkeley, California, USA: Calflora Database. Morin L; Gomez DR; Evans KJ; Neill TM; Mahaffee WF; Linde CC, 2013. http://www.oregon.gov/oda/shared/Documents/Publications/Weeds/ArmeniablackberryProfile.pdf, Peters A, 2012. A recent study from the Pacific Northwest of the USA, compared the effectiveness of high intensity, short duration goat grazing with mowing and goat grazing followed by mowing. © Copyright 2020 CAB International. Evergreen leaves are predominantly large, rounded or oblong, and generally grouped in fives on first-year canes and threes on second year, flowering canes. Could not resist bought. This species is highly invasive and can form impenetrable thickets which have a negative impact on native flora and fauna. Interesting Himalayas Facts: 6-10. Müll.) Evergreen leaves are predominantly large, rounded or oblong, and generally grouped in fives on first-year canes and threes … R. procerus is not a valid name for R. armeniacus, but rather a synonym of R. praecox (Ceska, 1999; The Plant list, 2013; USDA-ARS, 2015). NSW Department of Primary Industries Weed Management Unit, 2009, European Botanic Gardens Consortium (2014), Escape from confinement or garden escape (pathway cause), Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, 2015, http://www.surreyflora.org.uk/Documents/flora05.pdf, http://www.ou.edu/cas/botany-micro/ben/ben230.html, http://www.ipm.ucdavis.edu/PDF/PESTNOTES/pnwildblackberries.pdf, http://ir.library.oregonstate.edu/xmlui/handle/1957/10999?show=full, http://aknhp.uaa.alaska.edu/wp-content/uploads/2013/01/Rubus_discolor_BIO_RUDI2.pdf, http://www.oregon.gov/oda/shared/Documents/Publications/Weeds/ArmeniablackberryProfile.pdf, http://extension.oregonstate.edu/coos/sites/default/files/agriculture/cces213blackberryrustfungusmay2012.pdf, http://www.invasive.org/gist/moredocs/rubarm01.pdf, http://plants.usda.gov/plantguide/pdf/pg_ruar9.pdf, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx, http://www.nwcb.wa.gov/detail.asp?weed=111#pagetop, http://pdxscholar.library.pdx.edu/esm_fac/61, http://www.botanicgardens.eu/aliens/aliens.xls, http://www.fs.fed.us/global/iitf/pdf/shrubs/Rubus%20discolor.pdf, https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License. As the taxonomic confusion suggests R. armeniacus is easily confused with other species. Each method has reported advantages and disadvantages and several methods are often used in combination. Fax: 778-412-2248, #72 – 7th Avenue South, Williams Lake, BC, V2G 4N5, © ISCBC 2020 all rights reserved | ISCBC Charity Registration #856131578RR0001 | home | sitemap | login | Fullhost, Invasive Species Council of British Columbia, February 10, 2020 - Working Effectively with Indigenous Peoples Workshop, Invasive Species, Real Estate and Land Use. Two of the canes are primary and two are one year old. In India, it is found in the great hilly areas of Himalayas. Rubus in Surrey., Surrey, UK: Surrey Botanical Society. Bern, . The advantage of these treatments is that they can be applied outside of the berry picking season (DiTomaso, 2010). armeniacus (Focke) Erichsen. Klein H, 2011. USDA Forest Service, University of Puerto Rico. USA. USDA-ARS, 2015. Leaves are toothed and typically compounded with five leaflets but atypically or on fruiting branches can be tri- or unifoliate. For example, R. armeniacus is sometimes mistakenly referred to as R. frucitosus when it is only one of several species composing the R. frucitosus aggregate (Jones, 2004). Spontaneous hybrids between native and exotic Rubus in the Western United States produce offspring both by apomixis and by sexual recombination. Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry) occurrence and growth in relation to soil and light conditions in western Oregon. Telephone: 250-305-1003 or 1-888-933-3722 The Nature Conservancy. California Invasive Plants Council. July, 2004. Stems have strong, broad-based spines that hold on tenaciously and older stems are five-angled. Torbjorn T, Karlsson T, Rapp M, Sahlin U, 2015. County documented: documented to exist in the county by evidence (herbarium specimen, photograph). An explanation for this confusion is that R. armeniacus has been mistaken for R. praecox and thus confused for R. procerus (Jones, 2004). Avian dispersal of exotic shrubs in an archipelago. The species is a common garden escape with dispersal aided by water, birds and small mammals. It was first introduced beyond its native range for its tasty fruits. in the Macedonian Socialist Republic. Similarly, R. discolor is not a valid name for R. armeniacus and is in fact a synonym of R. ulmifolius (Ceska, 1999; The Plant List, 2013; Spjut, 2015). The flowers form in groups of three to 20 in terminal panicles. The consequence of the common erroneous usage of both R. procerus and R. discolor is that much of the information in the literature on R. armeniacus is confounded by voluminous references to the above two ‘synonyms’. Himalayan blackberry thickets overtake native plants and trees. Phytocoenologia, 44(1/2):31-62. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/phyt/2014/00000044/F0020001/art00003, Ingham CS, 2014. 44 (1/2), 31-62. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/phyt/2014/00000044/F0020001/art00003 DOI:10.1127/0340-269X/2013/0043-0564, ISSG, 2015. They are currently distributed on the Lower Mainland, Sunshine Coast, Fraser Valley, Gulf Islands, central to southern Vancouver Island, Queen Charlotte Islands, the Okanagan, and the West Kootenay areas. Thicket-forming blackberry with angular arching stems that tip-root, leaves with white undersides and large juicy blackberries. Flower stalks are prickly, with robust stems (canes) that support large, flattened and hooked or straight prickles. For example, R. discolor has been incorrectly declared a weed or noxious weed in a number of states in the USA (USDA-ARS, 2015) and numerous academic publications refer to the three Rubus species as synonyms (e.g. Pomological characteristics of some wild blackberry species (Rubus spp.) Rubus armeniacus (Himalayan blackberry); infestation, showing flowers and foliage. Davis, California, USA: Weed Research and Information Center, University of California, 544 pp. Oregon, USA: Oregon State University. USA. The Rubus flora of the island of Amrum (Northern Germany). Király G; Trávnícek B; Žíla V, 2014. For example it has been referred to as the most widespread and economically disruptive noxious weed in western Oregon, USA (Oregon Department of Agriculture, 2015). The fruits from R. armeniacus provide food for many birds and small mammals such as the coyote (Canis latrans), red foxes (Vulpes vulpes) squirrels (Sciuridae family) and black bears (Ursus americanus). Invasive plant species in the Swedish flora: Developing criteria and definitions, and assessing the invasiveness of individual taxa. DiTomaso JM; Kyser GB; Oneto SR; Wilson RG; Orloff SB; Anderson LW; Wright SD; Roncoroni JA; Miller TL; Prather TS; Ransom C; Beck KG; Duncan C; Wilson KA; Mann JJ, 2013. Ingestion by birds or mammals and long warm periods followed by long cold periods aid germination. 6. It was introduced outside of its native range as a cultivated crop for the production of sweet fruits. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. The dense thickets can limit movement of large animals, for example, stopping them from reaching water and foraging areas (Soll, 2004). It is also sometimes unclear in the literature whether the authors are referring to R. armeniacus or other closely related taxa (Francis, 2014). Alaska, USA: University of Alaska Anchorage. Native plant species are often out-competed by the rapidly growing Himalayan blackberry. "B" rated weeds - Armenian blackberry. Please click hereto see a county level distribution map of Himalayan blackberry in Washington. Beneficial associations with native bees, bumble bees (Bombus species) and hummingbirds (Trochilidae family) for the pollen and nectar were reported in California (Calflora, 2015). R. laciniatus (cutleaf blackberry) is also a closely related species. Himalayan blackberry Taxonomic Tree; Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae Phylum: Spermatophyta Subphylum: Angiospermae Class: Dicotyledonae; Summary of Invasiveness; R. armeniacus is a perennial shrub native to Armenia. > 10°C, Cold average temp. The fruits are commonly collected by berry pickers in both Europe and the USA. Blackberry rust fungus: possible new biological control. The plant has become invasive and grows and spreads rapidly. So it rested! A few native and ornamental alternatives to plant instead of himalayan blackberry include: Nootka Rose; Thimbleberry; Marionberry or Boysenberry; Red Raspberry; and Black Huckleberry. Noxious Weed Information. Himalayan blackberry Rubus discolor Weihe and Nees. Loos GH; Keil P, 2006. It is found mainly in cold-temperate regions like Europe and Asia. 51 (3), 237-239. Humans also contribute to blackberry spread by purposefully planting canes. http://bie.ala.org.au/, Bennett JR; Young EJ; Giblin DE; Dunwiddie PW; Arcese P, 2011. The canes of Himalayan blackberry can reach lengths of 40 feet and are typically green to deep red in color. This video is unavailable. Himalayan blackberry Rubus armeniacus Description It was introduced to North America in 1885 as a cultivated crop. Thickets can produce 7,000-13,000 seeds per square meter, and seeds can remain viable in the soil for several years. Victoria, Australia: Department of Primary Industries, 96 pp. In the winter the fruiting canes senesce while the first year canes produce branches and will set fruit the following year (Jones, 2004). [English title not available]. > 0°C, wet all year, Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer, Warm average temp. This species tends to form dense thickets that exclude other vegetation, thus forming near monocultures. The mean annual rainfall for its distribution is 760 mm, however, in drier climates it is confined to riparian zones or alongside artificial waterways (Francis, 2014). In: Willdenowia, 45 (1) 119-129. Blackberries form large, dense, impenetrable thickets that can limit movement of large animals, take over stream channels and stream banks, and reduce sight lines along rights-of-ways. In addition to this, it has been reported as highly invasive in Central Europe (von Raab-Straube and Raus, 2015) and has been identified as one of the 10 most problematic invasive plants or bryophytes in Sweden (Torbjorn et al., 2015) and noted as a threat to vegetation in Pannonian sandy habitats in Hungary (Király et al., 2014). The latter is often recommended as a follow up strategy following manual removal. R. armeniacus is predominantly evergreen but does die back with colder temperatures. > 0°C, dry summers, Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter, Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. Non-native: introduced (intentionally or unintentionally); has become naturalized. Rubus armeniacus Focke, an unnoticed invader in the Hungarian flora. (Die Rubus-Flora der Nordfriesischen Insel Amrum.) R. armeniacus is present in parts of Eurasia and is considered as native only to Armenia and possibly also northern Iran. Preslia, 77(1):1-88. 77 (1), 1-88. Created with Sketch Chromosome numbers of Polish brambles (Rubus L., Rosaceae) III. European Botanic Gardens Consortium, 2014. I saw last year in the store of the Institute of Lisavenko in Barnaul Himalayan blackberry saplings. Heavily infected leaves become defoliated. (Le genre Rubus l. (rosaceae) dans le Massif Armoricain et Ses Abords : une nouvelle approche, et une premiere espece a reviser, r. caesius l.) E.R.I.C.A, 25:97-116. Each drupe contains a single, hard, flattened seed (Soll, 2004; Francis, 2014; Ensley, 2015). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 4. Wild blackberries integrated pest management for home gardeners and landscape professionals. Torbjorn T; Karlsson T; Rapp M; Sahlin U, 2015. June, 2005. Flowering begins in spring and fruits ripen in midsummer. Similarly disking or ploughing should be repeated and care taken that the rhizomes are not spread further. Subordinate Taxa. Factors influencing epidemiology and management of blackberry rust in cultivated Rubus laciniatus. The PLANTS Database. A range of physical control methods focused on mechanical removal of both the vegetation and roots are available. R. armeniacus is often found along waterways suggesting that natural dispersal of the seeds along waterways is common. Australian Systematic Botany, 16(4):527-537. Rubus armeniacus - a correct name for Himalayan blackberries. The species has been reported as present in Australia, New Zealand and South Africa (Francis, 2014). This in turn, increases their growth rate. The Himalayan blackberry is considered to be native to Armenia and is sometimes called the Armenian blackberry. Invasive species influence riparian plant diversity along a successional gradient, Willamette River, Oregon. PacoWarabi Recommended for you. Fierke MK; Kauffman JB, 2006. The Plant List: a working list of all plant species. Boratyn'ska K, 1995. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. DOI:10.1023/B:GRES.0000024026.26655.d7, Haveman R, Ronde I de, Bijlsma R J, Schaminée J, 2014. (Die Rubus-Flora der Nordfriesischen Insel Amrum.). CABI Bioscience Switzerland Centre report to the Swiss Agency for Environment, Forests and Landscape. For native wildlife, Himalayan blackberry disrupts natural movement patterns and foraging behaviors, as the thick stems and sharp thorns make moving through areas difficult and the plant unpalatable. The thickets can reach densities of up to 525 stems (canes) /m2 and the individual canes can reach 6-12 m horizontally and 3 m vertically. If someone is determined to grow the plant in their garden, they should check their local regulations. HBB was probably first introduced to North America in 1885 as a culti-vated crop. Foliar applied herbicides have been reported most effective when the plants are in full leaf and this can be enhanced when the plants are water stressed (Soll, 2004). 7 (25/26), 93-97. During spring there are usually four live canes originating from an individual root crown. 95-102. Tuexenia. Himalayan Blackberry Bramble Bark Basket - Duration: 18:00. Oregon, USA. Raab-Straube E von; Raus T, 2015. The fact that Himalayan balsam is so attractive to bees reduces the insects' visits to native plants. The chromosome number for R. armeniacus was reported as 2n = 28 (Thompson, 1995). 01/31/2013 09:45am EST | Updated February 21, 2017. Klein H, 2011. http://plants.usda.gov/, Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board, 2015. Watch Queue Queue. It soon escaped cultivation and has since naturalized in many temperate … Wallingford, UK: CABI, CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution.

himalayan blackberry facts

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