Picture 1 â Tiger Salamander Source â netstate. Emerging infectious diseases have been implicated in the decline of amphibian populations worldwide (Daszak et al. Statistics: nsf.gov/statistics/ This strategy describes strategies for protecting habitat, filling in data gaps on population processes, habitat use, and life history, and building support for habitat protection among stakeholders and the public. Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection, Victoria, British Columbia. Cannings, S.G., L.R. Bachmann. Telephone numbers or other contact information may
Benoy, G.A. White Lake where tiger salamanders were studied in the late 1990s has been consistently dry since 2000 (Dyer per. House Bill 12-1147. + 1 Appendix. Conservation Biology 12(1):94-105. The species has suffered loss of available breeding habitat through wetland draining, contamination, and stocking with fish. Based on occurrence records with a buffer of 500 m placed around each point or group of points, there are over 597 known sites throughout the Prairie / Boreal population. Figure 4. Proceedings of the Biology and Management of Species and Habitats at Risk, Kamloops, British Columbia, Feb. 15-19. Schock, D.M., T.K. Housing and agricultural developments are the most serious threats to Tiger Salamanders and continue to be widespread and severe throughout their range (citations within Recovery Strategy); Developments have fragmented habitats that create potential disruption for dispersal and migration (citations within Recovery Strategy + SA). Russell, A.P., and A.M. Bauer. Although formal population viability analysis has not been conducted, there are virtually no populations that are not impacted by predatory fish, traffic mortality, or water levels that are so low that extended periods of drought prevent reproduction (BC CDC 2012). NatureServe, Arlington, Virginia. Within the range of the Prairie / Boreal population, mainly in Alberta and to a lesser extent in Saskatchewan and Manitoba, there has been a change from grazing and small farms to increased large-scale farming and conversion of habitat to accommodate growing urban populations and expansion of oil and gas developments (Rashford et al. 2003. The following people and organizations provided distribution data: D. Schock, J. Crosby, B. Scheffers, M. Taylor, N. Anderson, B. Johnson, L. Wilkinson, L. Bilyk, D. Collicutt, D. Forsyth, G. Benoy, D. Nemberg, W. Vanderschuit, G. Scrimgeour, S. Humphries, C. Pacas, K. Khidas, M. Steigerwald, Katrina Stipec (BC CDC), G. Berg, J. Wagner, D. Demarchi (BC-SPI), and O. Dyer. Deutschman, M.R., and J.J. Peterka. Western Tiger Salamanders have a wide distribution in arid interior regions of western North America. Other studies in Alberta and Saskatchewan have involved opportunistic observations of tiger salamanders (Puchniak 2002; Eaves 2004; Browne 2010; Pagnucco 2010; Scheffers 2010; Anderson pers. B.C. Catalogue of American Amphibians and Reptiles: 52.1-52.4. Private landowners may apply Malathion® without a licence (Mullan pers. Larvae have been shown to decrease the density of several invertebrate taxa and may compete with dabbling ducks in fishless prairie pothole wetlands (Benoy et al. Land development has eliminated and continues to eliminate suitable habitat adjacent to water bodies (ESR - Sarell 1996). 2011; Hallock pers. Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute, Alberta. The abundance of Western Tiger Salamanders in Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba is unknown. 2011. Koenig, and M.R. Figure 6 shows the prevalence of sport fish stocking in Alberta; a similar pattern is evident in the other provinces where the salamanders occur. Harp, E.M., and J.W. Migration from the water bodies seems to be triggered by rain in late summer, when the salamanders emerge by hundreds from breeding ponds (Patch and Stewart 1934). Biological Conservation. Genetic evidence of recent and historical declines of tiger salamanders due to fish stocking (mainly trout), combined with drought and potentially disease, was reported in Yellowstone National Park in Montana and Wyoming (Spear et al. The Western (formerly Barred) Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma mavortium (Family Ambystomatidae or Mole Salamanders) was first described by Baird in 1850 (Gehlbach 1967). 2008). Western Tiger Salamanders are susceptible to road kill where roads intersect migration routes to and from breeding sites. In permanent water bodies without predatory fish in British Columbia and Alberta, larvae have been reported to overwinter occasionally and emerge the following summer at a much larger body size or remain as aquatic neotenic adults (B.C. Management of water occurs throughout the species' range; every type of agriculture requires water management. Zaret, T. M. 1980. Herpetological Journal 14:201-207. 400 pp. This material is available primarily for archival
No, Is rescue from outside populations likely? The distribution and abundance of amphibians across land-use types in Alberta's Aspen Parkland. comm. Populations occur within the montane region of Alberta east of the Rocky Mountains up to elevations of 2,800 m in the Bow Valley area near Banff (Clevenger et al. Fraker. Technically this is a new report as it considers the Western (formerly Barred) Tiger Salamander, Ambystoma mavortium, alone for the first time. comm. But itâs been declining in population ever since the non-native barred tiger salamander was intentionally introduced to its range, resulting in massive hybridization. comm. Unexplained die-off of larval Barred Tiger Salamanders (Ambystoma mavortium) in an agricultural pond in the South Okanagan Valley, British Columbia, Canada. Northwestern Naturalist 92:221-224. Royal British Columbia Museum, Victoria, British Columbia. Figure 3. 2004. Adult hybrid salamander. The species occurs at only one of 7 RANA monitoring sites in Alberta, at Cypress Hills, where amphibians have been monitored from 1998 – 2006. Shaffer, W.D. Stevens, S.D., D.R.C. 2007. 2008. Cook F.R. Both California and barred tiger salamanders are around 7-8 inches long as adults. Retention of low-fitness genotypes over six decades of admixture between native and introduced tiger salamanders. comm. Drought watch. 2011). comm. 1998. After the introduction of Rainbow Trout in 1962, this population declined. Criterion E (Quantitative Analysis): Not applicable; not enough information is available. [accessed September 2011]. The underside is sooty grey. Species Inventory Database. In Alberta live bait can be collected for personal use in fishing but has to be used within that site and not moved to another lake. comm. 2000; Steen et al. 2008. 2006. 2011 Traffic Volume map. The nearest known US population is 17 km SW of Oroville in Washington State, a distance greater than 20 km from the nearest Canadian population. August 2011. 2013a. Biology Letters 5(2):160-162. Co-Chair of Tiger salamander recovery team. No. 1994. Installation of culverts or other underpasses can be effective in alleviating road mortality (Pagnucco et al. 22/75 known occurrences are within Parks /WHA's (30%) (Sarell 1996). comm. comm. Manitoba Herp Atlas. 2011. and sculpins (Cottus spp.) Molecular Ecology 15(7):1917-1928. 2004. B.C. 2009. 2009. comm. 1983. Fahrig, L., J. H. Pedlar, S. E. Pope, P. D. Taylor and J. F. Wegner. Drainage and infilling still occur, especially in association with urban developments and agriculture (Dahl and Watmough 2007; Bartzen et al. Trophic control of fishless ponds by tiger salamander larvae. Ministry of Transportation and Highways 2012). Ambystoma mavortium melanostictum. Life history patterns of Ambystoma tigrinum in montane Colorado. Oikos 71(1):55-64. The prevalence of ATV at any site in Alberta, Manitoba and Saskatchewan is high (up to 50%) in most populations examined in any given year (Goater pers. Alpha-numeric code: B1ab(ii,iii,v)c(iv)+2ab(ii,iii,v)c(iv). 2000. 2004) and requires a detailed, range-wide analysis. 2011. M.Sc. ...housing and agricultural developments (orchards/vineyards) are the most serious threats to Tiger Salamanders and continue to be widespread and severe throughout their range (citations within Recovery Strategy). Whereas larval salamander density was positively correlated with diving duck occurrence, it was negatively correlated with dabbling duck distribution within and among wetlands (Benoy et al. Environment-dependent admixture dynamics in a tiger salamander hybrid zone. There are no suitable habitats nearby, although there are apparently suitable wetlands and upland habitat further north (Ashpole pers. SSAR Herpetological Circular 40:1-62. Introductions of Green Sunfish (Lepomis cyanellus) have directly caused local extinction of A. m. stebbinsi in the U.S. (Storfer et al. Tiger salamanders in British Columbia are disjunct from populations in the remainder of Canada and occur in the Southern Mountain ecozone, whereas the remainder of the Canadian distribution occurs in the Prairie ecozone in Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba. Tiger salamanders show a wide range of clutch sizes, from an average of 421 ova reported in an eastern Tiger Salamander population from Michigan (Wilbur, 1977c) to 7,631 eggs from neotenic barred Tiger Salamander adults from Texas (Rose and Armentrout, 1976; see also Petranka, 1998). 1998. Hydrobiologia 481(1-3):47-59. comm. Tiger salamanders lack true balancers, but the lower pair of gills may act in their place. American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) have been introduced to the Southern Okanagan. Alberta Parks Act 45.1 and the Canada National Parks Act). Andrews, B.D. In Alberta, the Fish and Wildlife Management Information System database provides records of the presence of tiger salamanders. Time to sexual maturity is variable throughout the range, especially within montane regions, and may range from 1 to 4 years (Webb and Roueche 1971; Wissinger et al. Semlitsch, R.D., D.E. The Gray Tiger Salamander, A. m. diaboli, occurs in the prairies of Manitoba and Saskatchewan (Figure 1, 2) and according to distribution maps in Stebbins (1985) might also occur in east-central Alberta, but this has not been confirmed (Russell and Bauer 2000). Current approaches to wetland status and trends monitoring in prairie Canada and the continental United States of America. m. melanostictum). Though recognized as two separate subspecies, there has been no genetic work across the distribution to delineate clear genetic boundaries or barriers to dispersal. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum in Canada, in COSEWIC assessment and status report on the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum in Canada. Important protected sites include South Okanagan Grasslands Provincial Park, White Lake Grasslands Provincial Park, and the Kilpoola property acquired by The Nature Trust of B.C. Habitat Conservation Trust Fund, Victoria, British Columbia. Some populations, Alberta: New ground is broken occasionally (, Aspen plantations are present in Alberta and, Restricted footprint; 27% of Alberta Parkland is in pasture; 46% in crop; Prairie area of Alberta: 42% in crop, 12% in pasture. Ferrari, M.C,, and D.P. xv + 63 pp. COSEWIC History The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) was created in 1977 as a result of a recommendation at the Federal-Provincial Wildlife Conference held in 1976. Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. 2011. 2003). These hybrids are more likely to survive than either parent species, according to a new study. Habitat fragmentation is of growing concern due to increased traffic volumes, especially in South Okanagan, and high road mortality rate of tiger salamanders when migrating to and from breeding sites (see Threats and Limiting Factors). Green, J. Bowerman, M.J. Adams, A. Hyatt, and W.H. Given the potential for philopatry in Western Tiger Salamanders, the destruction of a single breeding site could eliminate an entire population. Possible across Prairie provinces, Is there sufficient habitat for immigrants in Canada? Western Tiger Salamanders are large, robust mole salamanders that are among the largest terrestrial salamanders in North America. Goater, C., pers. Aspects of cannibalistic morphs in a population of Ambystoma t. tigrinum larvae. 2011; Kendall pers. Darling (ed.) Secondary production of tiger salamanders (Ambystoma tigrinum) in three North Dakota lakes. 2011). Outside of British Columbia, little is known about the occurrences of Western Tiger Salamanders. University of Alberta Press, Edmonton. The synchronicity of fluctuations may be particularly applicable for the Southern Mountain population, which occupies a relatively small geographic area that is subject to similar weather patterns. 2011). Sarell, M.J. 2004. 2011). Terrestrial forms are easily distinguished by the greater size of the Western Tiger Salamander and their distinctive colouration. Evolution 50(1):417-433. Tiger salamanders are long-lived, with maximum life spans recorded at 16 (Russell and Bauer 2000) to 25 years (Tyning 1990). The Western Tiger Salamander is widely distributed in the arid and semi-arid interior of western North America (Figure 1). Amphibians in Decline: Canadian Studies of a Global Problem. B. C. Ministry of Environment. 2011). Physiological Zoology 71:671-679. Prepared for the B.C. Personal conversations with A. Whiting. COSEWIC Mandate The Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) assesses the national status of wild species, subspecies, varieties, or other designatable units that are considered to be at risk in Canada. 127 pp. Deguise, I. and J.S. Would, for example, the hybrid salamanders qualify for the same protection under the Endangered Species Act as the endangered California Tiger Salamander? The calculated overall threat impact was “very high – high” for both populations (Appendix 1 and 2). August and September 2011. There are 188 sites (22%) within protected lands in Alberta, 21 sites (6.4%) in Saskatchewan, and 13 sites (8%) in Manitoba. Koch, E.D., and C.R. The amphibians and reptiles of Manitoba . Green shading indicates the total extent of occurrence (572 490 km2). Tiger salamanders' markings are variable throughout their extensive range, but the most common marking resembles the vertically striped pattern of their mammalian namesake. comm. The Red River in Manitoba acts as an approximate dividing line between the two species in Canada. Conservation Biology 22(Suppl. Movements are usually within 250 m from aquatic breeding habitats based on radio-telemetry studies (Richardson et al. 1978. 494 pp. Peterson, M.D. Professor University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. Email correspondence with A. Whiting regarding the use of Malathion in British Columbia. 2008; in fish: Jancovitch et al. Not at Risk (NAR)** A wildlife species that has been evaluated and found to be not at risk of extinction given the current circumstances. (2011) found the Western Tiger Salamander at 8 of 96 ponds surveyed from 2003 – 2006 in lowland valley and agricultural areas of the South Okanagan Valley. However, in exceptionally dry years mortality rate was 0.45 and would result in generation times of 3.2 to 5.2 years using the same equation. 1971. Preston, W.B. comm. Harper, J.L. Fish stocking is similarly prevalent in British Columbia, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba, but data were not available for detailed mapping. comm. 2009. Journal of Herpetology 39(3):366-372. Gee. 2011). M.Sc. On June 5, 2003, the Species at Risk Act (SARA) was proclaimed. In British Columbia, radio-tagged adults rarely moved more than 250 m from the wetland of capture, and their movements appeared unaffected by agricultural land use in the surrounding landscape (Richardson et al. University of Alberta Press, Edmonton, Alberta. British Columbia drought response plan. Alberta Sustainable Resource Development, Fish and Wildlife Division, Alberta Species at Risk Report No. 2004). 1985. However, the resulting pulsed breeding pattern is expected to contribute to fluctuations in adult numbers, as the number of recruits to the adult population will vary on a multi-annual basis. 2011. Hero, L. Berger, R. Speare, K. McDonald, and P. Daszak. 2011. In addition, there is a high degree of overlap among diets of the Western Tiger Salamander and introduced fish species such as Rainbow Trout (Olenick and Gee 1981). Scott, R.D. B.C. Scheffers, B. Current predictions of climate change indicate reduced precipitation in the prairie and parkland regions of Alberta and Saskatchewan (Hogg and Hurdle 1995; Frelich and Reich 2010), which could result in further breeding habitat loss for Western Tiger Salamanders and consequent population declines. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89(2):373-382. Older literature does not generally distinguish between the Western Tiger Salamander, A. mavortium, and the Eastern Tiger Salamander, A. tigrinum. The larvae are displayed in a white container. The British Columbia Wildlife Act affords protection such that the tiger salamander cannot be killed, collected, or held in captivity without special permits. 2003) and has been implicated in mortality events in Saskatchewan and Manitoba (Bollinger et al. Key habitat features include sandy or friable soils surrounding semi-permanent to permanent fishless water bodies (Petranka 1998). The virus can be stored in substrates and may remain infectious in water for > 97 days (reviewed by Whittington et al. The Southern Interior Amphibian and Reptiles Recovery Team is attempting to build support for habitat protection by stakeholders and the public to secure both aquatic and terrestrial habitat within the core of the species’ distribution. The distribution of Western Tiger Salamanders in British Columbia is restricted to the South Okanagan, Lower Similkameen and Kettle River watersheds (Figure 4). Canadian Journal of Zoology 83(7):926-934. 1994). Conservation Data Centre. Bonsalb, P. Hardera, R. Lawforda, R. Aiderc, B.D. [accessed Mar 11, 2012]. All breeding sites are within 700 m of a primary or secondary roadway, and successful migration between aquatic and terrestrial habitats may be hindered by the number of roads and developments in the upland habitat. Shaffer. August 2011. The largest reported body size is 385 mm for A. m. diaboli from Devils Lake, North Dakota (Larson 1968). An ongoing program to sample biodiversity throughout Alberta in 20 km2 grid cells (Alberta Biodiversity Monitoring Institute 2008) will help fill knowledge gaps within the eastern prairie and parkland regions. Biologist, Canadian Wildlife Service, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. (éd.) Whiteman, and S.A. Wissinger. 2011; Vanderschuit pers. It is restricted to scattered, isolated populations in the South Okanagan, Lower Similkameen, and Kettle River watersheds with the range extending south to the U.S. border (information from report text). But hybridization has usually been considered "an evolutionary dead end," says Benjamin Fitzpatrick of the University of Tennessee, Knoxville, who is the study's lead author. In addition to these volunteer networks, the national monitoring program Frogwatch, which focuses on calling anurans, provides occasional reports of salamander occurrence. The maximum distance between 8 study ponds was 100 m where up to 40% of individuals moved between ponds in a given year, and individuals visited up to 5 ponds within their life time (mean 1.6 ±0.1, n = 90 salamanders). Feeding habits of metamorphosed Ambystoma tigrinum melanostictum in ponds of high pH (>9). Sam Scheiner, National Science Foundation, (703) 292-7175, email: email@example.com, Principal Investigators
Colorado State. Hadly. Allaire, and R.A. Popko. Graduate Student, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. Cover illustration/photo: Western Tiger Salamander -- Photo by A. Whiting. Copeia 1983(3):608-616. Program Overview. Pechmann, J.H.K., D.E. These threats are likely to have their greatest impact at the local population or site level, and therefore the estimated number of IUCN threat-based locations is large, probably over 500. The Southern Mountain population of the Western Tiger Salamander in British Columbia is listed federally as Endangered and is on Schedule 1 under the Species at Risk Act. Dahl, T.E., and Watmough, M.D. comm. and unpublished data. 2011), and in Saskatchewan (Didiuk pers. These salamanders can range from 8-12 inches long. The average size ranges between seven and eight inches. Sexton, O.J., and J.R. Bizer. In spring, aquatic adults are easily distinguished from larvae based on their large size. 2008). This report was overseen and edited by Kristiina Ovaska, Co-chair of the COSEWIC Amphibians and Reptiles Specialist Subcommittee. 2010. The California Tiger Salamander, the Barred Tiger Salamander and a hybrid of the two. Rainbow Trout, other introduced fish, and, Trout stocking (introduced and native species are captured in the above row 8.1. [Alberta FWMIS] Alberta Fish and Wildlife Management Information Service. Reproductive ecology of a population of the California tiger salamander. 1983. Water deficits and short hydroperiods remain of concern. Ministry of Agriculture. Threatened (T) A wildlife species likely to become endangered if limiting factors are not reversed. Interaction of an aquatic herbicide and predatory salamander density on wetland communities. Copeia 1960(4):363-364. The Southern Mountain population was previously recognized as a DU, based on the disjunct distribution of these salamanders from the remainder of the species’ distribution in Canada (Figure 1). Barred tiger salamanders are difficult to observe because they frequently remain underground. Ashpole, S. pers. Great Basin Naturalist 46:299-301. 1984. 1996. 2011; Paszkowski pers. 1971. But its plight is complicated by the fact that hybrids of the two species are thriving and producing animals that are a genetic mishmash. The number of occupied sites fluctuates annually but is likely unchanged from the last surveys in 2006 (Noble and Spendlow 2006). comm. Blackf, P. Bullockd, J.C. Brimelowa, R. Browncg, H. Carmichaele, C. Derksenh, L.B. Ministry of Environment. Goldfish (Crassius crassius) have been introduced into some water bodies not suited to fish stocking, and anecdotal evidence suggest they have limited or eliminated salamander recruitment within those water bodies (Ashpole pers. 2011. Southern Mountain population – Endangered Prairie / Boreal population – Special Concern 2012. Water management and use occurs throughout the species' range in the prairies, as every type of agriculture requires water management. COSEWIC assessment and status report on the tiger salamander Ambystoma tigrinum in Canada. Iteroparity in the variable environment of the salamander Ambystoma tigrinum. Status history The Tiger Salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum) was originally assessed by COSEWIC in November 2001 as three separate populations: Great Lakes population (Extirpated), Prairie / Boreal population (Not at Risk), and Southern Mountain population (Endangered). Responses of bullfrog tadpoles to hypoxia and predators. Newton, and S.J. comm. Tarrangle and Yelland (2005) found the species at 7 of 52 wetlands surveyed in South Okanagan. 2001. comm. 2007. 2010. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 25(1):168-173. In British Columbia, most of the known 86 breeding sites are within fragmented habitats, and most breeding sites are within the South Okanagan, where habitats continue to be lost and fragmented at a rapid pace. 2003. Several subspecies of Western Tiger Salamander (usually A. m. mavortium) have been introduced into California and other western US states as a result of the practice of using salamander larvae as fish bait, thus complicating attempts to delineate subspecies boundaries (Fitzpatrick and Shaffer 2004, 2007; Johnson et al. 2000. Faculty Service Officer, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta. comm. A likely explanation for this pattern is a hybridization event between Arizona and barred tiger salamanders at some point in the distant past (Jones et al. Shaffer, H., and M. McKnight. Life history and demographic variation in the California tiger salamander (Ambystoma californiense). The role of prey in controlling expression of a trophic polymorphism in Ambystoma tigrinum nebulosum. Within the Prairie Provinces, there are no reports of changes in the distribution of the species through time, but systematic surveys are lacking. Murphy. 2004. Frelich L.E., and P.B. B.C. contacts. Although they are tolerant of a wide variety of aquatic conditions, large reductions in the length of hydroperiods due to droughts is detrimental and can limit recruitment of young or result in complete reproductive failure (Richardson et al. Introduced sport fish prey on both adult and larval tiger salamanders. Flooding caused by storms could increase pollutant and fish transport into breeding ponds. Photo of two Gray Tiger Salamanders, Ambystoma mavortium diaboli, dorsal views, facing each other. Using the most recent data available, and utilizing a buffer of 500 m around each occurrence point and joining points with overlapping buffers (referred to as sites) there are up to 68 sites that have had at least one life stage present in the past 10 years (since 2001). Phone and email correspondence with A. Whiting. Parks Canada Agency. Drought research in Canada: a review. Green (ed.) The recent droughts in British Columbia and Washington have resulted in lack of normal seasonal filling of wetlands where salamanders were previously found (Dyer pers. comm. Hurdle. Kats, L., J. Petranka, and A. Sih. 2011). These same characteristics also make them common in the pet trade. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A-Comparative Experimental Biology 297A(2):147-159. 2002). The kinematics of larval salamander swimming (Ambystomatidae: Caudata). Furthermore, morphological differences between metamorphic and neotenic morphs may result in divergence of feeding habits (Denoel et al. 2011; Taylor pers. Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, Wildlife Branch, Oliver, British Columbia. Copeia 2000:365–377. Cannibal morphs of both larvae and neotenic adults are larger and have wider, flatter heads and an enlarged vomerine tooth ridge when compared to non-cannibal morphs (Collins et al. Salamander larvae transport energy from aquatic production to terrestrial uplands after metamorphosis; these exports may be significant in large populations (Gibbons et al. Ecology 88(4):891-903. Females may take longer to mature than males (Schock, unpubl. 1994; Koch and Peterson 1995; Richardson et al. The decline of the sharpsnouted day frog (Taudactylus acutirostris): the first documented case of extinction by infection in a free-ranging wildlife species? 2012. 1999. The researchers say that their results also indicate that some non-native salamander genes may eventually spread to all California Tiger salamanders. Ottawa. 2000. Map of the entire Canadian distribution of the Western Tiger Salamander in British Columbia (Southern Mountain population) and the central and southern portions of Alberta, Saskatchewan and Manitoba within aspen parkland and short grass prairie (Prairie population). dissertation, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. 2001; Alberta FWMIS 2011) and at a number of sites within Waterton Lakes National Park (WLNP Wildlife Observations 2011). Credit and Larger Version, Tiger Salamanders breed under water in landlocked ponds. A recovery strategy for the Southern Mountain population has been prepared (Southern Interior Reptile and Amphibian Recovery Team. Clevenger, A.P., B. Chruszcz, and K.E. Copeia 2004(3):683-690. Environment Canada, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 55(3):481-487. 2011. Ecology 80(6):2102-2116. 2012). However, the numbers may be greater following wet years conducive to breeding; they could drop well below this value in years following prolonged multi-year droughts that can greatly reduce the breeding population size due to lack of recruits from sites that dry up before development is complete and produce no young. Docherty, D.E., C.U. Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. 2009. Tiger Salamanders have received little public attention in Canada; however, the interpretive centre in St. Leon, Manitoba, focuses on their life cycle. Shown are the extent of occurrence and index of area of occupancy (for breeding sites alone; 58 cells = 232 km2). In the Prairies, a change has occurred in land use from grazing and low-scale agriculture to large-scale farming and conversion of habitat to accommodate growing urban populations and expansion of oil and gas developments. NatureServe explorer: An online encyclopedia of life [web application].